Stephen Rosser, “Thinking Cowboy,” 2003-04

This post was written by student Hillarey Dees while she was enrolled in Art Since 1960.

Stephen Rosser was raised on a ranch in Southwest Oklahoma. He was always interested in art, and pursued a Bachelor of Arts degree in Education from Southwestern Oklahoma State University. After he graduated he traveled to Santa Fe to show his portfolio to galleries, and soon was represented by galleries across the nation. His work garnered particular interest in the 1980s and 1990s. He returned to Oklahoma to pursue his Master of Fine Arts at the University of Tulsa, where he studied with Joe Baker. He has painted professionally for 25 years, worked in art galleries for 20 years, and has also been a professor of art at different universities. He currently (2011) teaches art courses at Tulsa Community College.

IMG_0621

Stephen Rosser, “Thinking Cowboy,” 2003-04. Four color woodcut, 22 x 17 1/2 inches. Gardiner Permanent Art Collection, 98-0028.

Rosser is known best for his series of paintings entitled The Cowboy and the Indian Wild West. He uses imagery from the rural environment and his upbringing in paintings while incorporating wittiness to give it a lighthearted feel. He states, “Many of my paintings have a humorous quality that comes about by twisting traditional ideas into unexpected forms. I use puns literally as well as visually. There is a wealth of materials for the painter in the subculture of the contemporary American cowboy lost in a modern world.”

IMG_0623

Auguste Rodin, “The Thinker,” 1904.

Two of his works are in the Gardiner Permanent Art Collection (part of the OSU Museum of Art collection): a four-block woodcut titled Thinking Cowboy and an oil painting titled Blue Venus in Chaps. Thinking Cowboy was created at the first of a printmaking workshop series which served as a fundraiser for the OSU Art Department [now the Department of Art, Graphic Design, and Art History]. The workshop brought in a working artist once a year and they created a series of prints that were sold by annual subscription to collectors who wanted to support the arts at OSU. Thinking Cowboy presents a central figure of a cowboy in the pose of Auguste Rodin’s well-known sculpture, The Thinker. As in most of Rosser’s work, it employs bright colors and art-historical references in a whimsical manner.

IMG_0624

Rina Banerjee, “Take me, take me, take me to the Palace of Love,” 2003.

Rosser’s work reminds me of artist Rina Banerjee’s sculpture, because both use art to express their relationship to, and disconnection from, their upbringing. Banerjee was born in India but has spent most of her life in New York. Some of her work relates to her detachment from her heritage, suggesting that she feels almost like a tourist when she returns to India to visit. In Take me, take me, take me… to the Palace of Love, for example, she reconstructs the Taj Mahal in a fantastical manner, with bright pink plastic wrap. Rosser has also spoken of his disconnection from his origins, saying, “When I go there, it’s just not the same. They just don’t think like I do down there.” He always felt different from the other people in the ranch community, saying he never quite fit in. Both Banerjee and Rosser mimic their past using satire and humor to satisfy their feelings as outsiders.

Quotes from Rosser are drawn from an interview between the artist and the author conducted on April 12, 2011.

Advertisements
Posted in permanent collection, student research, student writing | Leave a comment

Willard Stone, “Something to Believe In,” 1969

This post was written by student Shaylene Thompson for History of Twentieth Century Art.

Willard Stone was born in 1916 in Oktaha, Oklahoma, and died in 1985 of a heart attack. Stone was a Native American/Indian artist whose primary subjects were Western, such as cowboys, Indians, and horses. At the age of thirteen, Stone’s interest in drawing was upset when he lost parts of his right thumb and two fingers in an accidental dynamite cap explosion. He then found a new outlet to express himself, in the form of modeling clay.

Willard Stone, “Something to Believe In,” 1969. Lithograph on paper, 11 x 14 inches. Gardiner Art Collection, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. F. M. Bartlett, 83-0120.

Something to Believe In is an 11 x 14-inch lithographic print. It was completed in 1969, and donated to Oklahoma State University in May 1983. A description of the print that accompanied the artwork says, “Three Basic Things—We have to believe in our kids and their future, represented by the little Cherokee boy, and get them to understanding and believing in Nature, or the Good Earth, upon which their life depends, represented by the terrapin, and third, the Great Spirit or God, represented by the three feathers in the boy’s hair. 30 castings in bronze will be made of this subject. If interested, contact the sculptor.”

This description gives us insight into what the print (and the related sculpture) represents. With three different themes symbolized in the print, Stone explains and shows how those themes are relevant to everyone’s life, and what he believes should be passed on from generation to generation. The boy and the turtle are the only things in the print, focusing us on their specific concepts and their relation to one another.

Something to Believe In is a representational print, and it doesn’t fit into the canonical modernist movements we typically study in art history classes. The print is the work of a man who wishes to express his heritage through the media of print and sculpture. This is a modern work because the artist expresses himself through his work, not necessarily concerning himself with what his audience wants to see. It is a very personal work, in which Stone illustrated his beliefs about how we should behave and what we should teach our children.

Posted in permanent collection, student writing | Leave a comment

Raymond Gloeckler and Pop Surrealism

This post was written by student Daniel King.

Although not often associated with one another, the work of Camille Rose Garcia and Raymond Gloeckler both question the fantasies and foibles of humanity. Garcia, a “lowbrow” artist inspired by the Grimms’ fairy tales and Disney movies, is typically connected to the Pop Surrealism movement. Gloeckler is a printmaker who gives animals anthropomorphic qualities to comment on human corruption and humanity’s many flaws. The two artists use different levels of abstraction within their shared surrealism, even as both explore the wide range of human flaws.

dreamtime-escape-plan-white-swan-660

Camille Rose Garcia, “The White Swan Deluge,” 2005.

Garcia is inspired by the fantasies dominant in American culture, but she reinterprets them, undermining their naivete in order to suggest that society tells itself these fantasies to hide the fact that the world is corrupt and despairing. Some of her work, like The White Swan Deluge, is a social commentary on the tsunami that devastated Southeast Asia in 2004. Although it’s referring to real-world events, Garcia’s psychedelic color palette gives the image a surreal vibe. Her figures offer symbolic responses to the devastation: many of the characters’ eyes are closed, which the artist asserts represents their use of sleep and dreams to conjure escapes from the situation. In other words, the closed eyes may be her symbol for the tsunami survivors’ dream of a better life. Their hopelessness, in combination with the childlike palette, invites viewers to discover the grim realities waiting outside their fantasy worlds.

Gloeckler Bugs and Boars

Raymond Gloeckler, “Bugs and Boars, Pigs and Pests, the Red Baron and the Mighty Batman,” 1988. Wood engraving, Gardiner Permanent Art Collection, Oklahoma State University Museum of Art, ND-0035.

Gloeckler, like Garcia, comments on the foibles of humanity in a surreal way. In contrast to Garcia, his work is a woodblock print and is devoid of color. Therefore, his work relies solely on the abstraction of the human and animal represented. Gloeckler’s work is not as cartoon-like as Garcia’s; it resembles political cartooning more than Disney, and is similar to political cartoons in tone thanks to its negative depiction of authority figures. However, his work is much more abstract than typical political cartoons. His print, Bugs and Boars, Pigs and Pests, the Red Baron and the Mighty Batman (1988), seems directly to criticize Richard Nixon’s political ideas. In Nixon’s era, politicians who were in favor of war were often called war pigs. The reference to the Red Baron may refer to the spread of communism, and the superhero the American need to save the world (presented satirically). The bugs/pests are shaped like airplanes, which could also further the point that the United States had become militant bullies, pestering other countries (this is also an idea explored by Garcia, for example in Snow White and the Black Lagoon, in which she critiques the US military-industrial complex).

Further Reading:

Andrew Stevens and Raymond Gloeckler, Ray Gloeckler, Master Printmaker (Chazen Museum of Art, 2004).

Posted in permanent collection, student research, student writing | Leave a comment

Luigi Kasimir, “Austrian Scene (City Entrance to Town),” 1922

This post was written by student Tori Bryant.

Artist Luigi Kasimir developed a specific method of colored etching. He was born in 1881 in the town of Pettau, which at the time was in the Austro-Hungarian empire. He attended the Vienna Academy of Art, where he studied under William Unger, the artist who first introduced him to the technique of color etching. Kasimir also met his wife, Tanna Kasimir-Hoernes, at the Academy; she was an accomplished artist herself. Before Kasimir developed color etching, most etchings were done in black and white. Etchings had been popular for many years, and several artists explored applying color to etchings in various ways: hand coloring, or printing multiple colors from a single plate [a technique called à la poupée – ed.]. Kasimir’s method consisted of sketching the scene or image, usually in pastel, and then transferring the design by hand onto four to six plates. These plates were a way to keep the individual colors separate. The result was a crisp, clear image. Kasimir produced etchings for the majority of his lifetime, all with rich color and beautiful line quality. He died in 1962 in Grinzing, a suburb of Vienna.

Kasimir Austrian Scene

Luigi Kasimir, “Austrian Scene (City Entrance to Town),” 1922. Color etching, Gardiner Permanent Art Collection, Oklahoma State University Museum of Art, 80-0053.

Kasimir was considered a realist; the vast majority of his works’ subjects were architecture, landscape, and city scenes. This print, Austrian Scene (City Entrance to Town), created in 1922, fits in well with the rest of his work, although it is much gloomier and more dismal than most of his other etchings. For instance, Innsbruck, Golden Roof and Wiessenkirchen on the Danube are two etchings that show how cheerful and brightly colored the majority of his prints are.

Kasimir Innsbruck

Luigi Kasimir, “Innsbruck, Golden Roof,” ca. 1922.

Looking specifically at Austrian Scene, the most interesting aspect of the etching is the fact that a large percentage of the composition is taken up by the concrete structure and arch. Yes, there is a city scene through the arch, but it is mostly in the distance and in the background of the print. It almost seems as though the arch and the concrete structure have the most significance in the scene. Since the etching was done in 1922, this fits in with other artists who were focusing their content on industry and the growth of the city. This could explain the fact that Kasimir uses dark and dreary colors, emphasizing the concrete and the rise of the city.

The arch also underscores the human perspective that Kasimir uses. The point of view makes it seem as though the viewer of the print is really standing outside the city, looking through the arch. Qualities like this make Kasimir’s arch truly representational, without drastic distortion or stylization in the scene. There are some blurred images of people walking the streets, but through the shadows and busy-ness of the city, a person would hardly see people clearly, even in reality.

Posted in permanent collection, student research, student writing | Leave a comment

Jack Coughlin, “James Joyce,” ca. 1975

This post was written by student Amanda Sawyer.

Jack Coughlin, an Irish American artist born in 1932, is best known for his portraits of literary figures. He attended the Rhode Island School of Design and enjoyed a successful professional artistic and teaching career. [Today, he is professor emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. – ed.] Coughlin deals primarily in printmaking but also does work in drawing, painting, and sculpture. His print, named after the famed Irish novelist, James Joyce, is expressive of the style so commonly used by Coughlin.

 

Coughlin James Joyce

Jack Coughlin, “James Joyce,” ca. 1975. Etching on paper, Gardiner Permanent Art Collection, Oklahoma State University Museum of Art, 80-0024.

During the 1960s, many types of artistic expression were explored. Some of them moved as far away as possible from traditional renderings and notions of what constitutes art. Coughlin’s exploration was much more subtle. His figures are highly representative of the individuals depicted; his methods of portraying the human form hold both naturalistic and illustrative qualities. By filling in areas of the subject with a sense of depth and form, Coughlin conveys the existence of the actual person. The areas he leaves blank, or simply described with a single line, leave the viewer to interpret. Inspiration for this technical method stems from artists such as Francisco Goya and Martin Schongauer, men whose work explored both animal and human forms.

Although Coughlin’s prints do not come swiftly to mind when considering art after 1960, his prints represent an aspect of American design and artistic thought. His influences fall within the European tradition, but are unique in their execution. The blank spaces and somewhat awkward positioning of the figures create a subtly altered view of these prominent figures. Coughlin’s work is modern in that it retreats from strictly traditional notions of artistic expression; he allowed himseld the luxury of exploration in terms of combining minimalistic representation and hyper-realistic study.

Posted in permanent collection, student research, student writing | Leave a comment

See Your Art and Make It, Too: Robert Rauschenberg at the OSU Museum of Art

This spring, students in Art Since 1960 honed their skills as critical writers. Art critics introduce work to a wide variety of audiences, suggesting ways that museum and gallery visitors might approach work, putting artists and artworks in historical context, and explaining why the work excites them. In this essay, student Audrey Gleason reviews the current exhibition, “Robert Rauschenberg’s World,” on view at the OSU Museum of Art through June 10.

New Friends, Old Friends: Works from the Collection is an exhibition series starting with Robert Rauschenberg’s World at the OSU Museum of Art in Stillwater, Oklahoma. This particular installment of the series is on display from January 24th to June 10th, 2017. I have the incredible opportunity to be on the student staff at the museum. As a result, I spend a large amount of time with the artworks on display, and I learn a lot about the shows, as well as getting to hear from visitors about their thoughts and interpretations.

Rauschenberg-Narcissus-1990

Robert Rauschenberg (American, 1925-2008), “Narcissus,” 1990. Acrylic, enamel, and fire wax on stainless steel. Long-term loan to the OSU Museum of Art.

Robert Rauschenberg is an American artist whose career spanned nearly half a century. He is well-known for his experimental “combines,” which blurred the lines between painting and sculpture, as well as using non-traditional materials for both. In the early stages of his career when he did not have a whole lot of money and resources, he would walk around his neighborhood and look through trash for interesting pieces to use in his work. He had a rule that if he could not find anything useful on his own block, he could walk around one other block directly next to him, but that was it. He really had to get creative and push himself to make do with what was available. There is also the infamous story of the time he painted on his own bedspread after running out of canvas. Rauschenberg kept up this experimental and discovery-seeking spirit throughout his career. Whenever he at last received good recognition for any one medium or project, he felt it was time to move on and try something new. He worked in painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking, papermaking, and performance, as well as combinations of two or more of these.

The exhibition at the museum highlights two distinct periods in Rauschenberg’s career. There are two large-scale mixed-media prints on stainless steel, which were part of Rauschenberg’s ROCI project in the 1980s and 90s, and there are four different photo lithographs on paper from the 1960s. The Rauschenberg Overseas Cultural Interchange project (ROCI) aimed to promote global peace and appreciation for other cultures by traveling to ten different countries and making art with the native people of those countries. The pieces at the OSU Museum of Art, Narcissus (1990) and Venus Rapture IV (1991), were done in the American phase of ROCI (Figures 1 and 2). In my experience of guarding art at the museum, people are drawn to these pieces more than Rauschenberg’s lithographs, mostly because of the reflective surfaces and more easily recognizable imagery such as Venus, a bicycle, and a photography studio. However, people also enjoy looking at the lithographs and hunting for more subtle but still recognizable imagery such as a turtle and a “Vote Baby Vote” poster. As for me, I can spend hours upon hours standing in the same room with the same art and somehow I know I’ll go to the museum tomorrow and make a new connection that I hadn’t noticed before.

Rauschenberg-Venus-Rapture-1991

Robert Rauschenberg (American, 1925-2008), “Venus Rapture IV,” 1991. Acrylic, fire wax, and variegated brass leaf on stainless steel. Long-term loan to the OSU Museum of Art.

The OSU Museum of Art features an artLAB space for families and art enthusiasts of all ages to engage with exhibitions. During Robert Rauschenberg’s World, there are plenty of collage materials available for people to make their own work inspired by Rauschenberg. But these materials aren’t just limited to cut-up magazines. There are huge bins of recycled materials like cardboard, wood, pop tabs, rocks, and old jewelry, just to name a few. Plus, there are mirrors set up for people to draw on them with dry-erase markers to mimic how Rauschenberg created work on reflective surfaces. On Family Day in February, parents and their children did these activities together, opening up new doors for how parents think about introducing art to kids. Who needs premade coloring pages when kids can create their own compositions and expand their creativity with collaging?

Even more exciting is that the activities have expanded since February so people can make connections between Robert Rauschenberg’s World and Oklahoma and Beyond, the other exhibition on display at the museum. There is a community collage project in the artLAB inspired by Joseph Glasco. At Family Day in March, people helped paint two different canvases, and now visitors are encouraged to cut up pieces from one canvas to collage on top of the other. Although the activity is associated with Oklahoma and Beyond, there are strong ties to Rauschenberg’s creative process as well.

Robert Rauschenberg’s World successfully introduces viewers to Rauschenberg’s legacy, while also leaving room for them to want to know more. People can experience two separate stages of his career, and then go on to ask, “What happened in between?” Perhaps they will look him up online or open one of the many books about Rauschenberg at the museum. A lot of people ask me what his pieces mean, and I tell them that Rauschenberg purposefully does not reveal his intentions because he wants the audience to make connections and draw meaning from his work on their own. They usually seem relieved to know there isn’t a right answer they’re trying to dig out, but rather anything they come up with is one of many right answers. It is a good way to introduce people to looking at and thinking about art. Plus, they gain new perspectives about what art can be after experimenting for themselves.

Whether you’re an art student, an art enthusiast, a professional artist, a parent, a teenager, a chemical engineering major, age 73 or 37 or 3 or 7, art is relevant to everyone and everyone can learn how to appreciate it and engage with it. Robert Rauschenberg’s work especially does not claim to be for only a small highly intelligent percent of the population, but for everyone to think about and create meaning from. He made his work on reflective surfaces just so that everyone could be a part of it. The student staff loves having conversations and answering your questions, and we hope you become inspired by Rauschenberg to experiment and try new things, not just in art but in all aspects of life.

Student essays are lightly edited for grammar and length, but their content is not changed. Read more student writing about Robert Rauschenberg on the blog! And make sure you visit the exhibition before it closes this Saturday, June 10.

Posted in museum exhibitions, permanent collection, student writing | Leave a comment

The Yellow-Cheeked Meadow Mouse Explains America

Last fall, students in ART 3663: History of American Art had the opportunity to visit the OSU Museum of Art’s study room in order to get a close look at works from the permanent collection. In small groups, they selected a single object to study together for an hour, and then they wrote individual papers based on the ideas generated in the group. In this post, student Jessica Harper writes about the 1847 hand-colored lithograph, Yellow-Cheeked Meadow Mouse, by John Woodhouse Audubon.

When thinking of the animals in America during the mid-1800s, the name John James Audubon is the first thing to come to mind. Audubon was not the first to attempt to catalog America’s creatures, but he is the most well-known. Audubon was famous during his time for his scientific books like The Birds of America (1827) and Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1847). These collections of works done by Audubon were extremely popular at the time and are still treasured today, as the piece in the OSU Museum of Art makes evident. Yellow-Cheeked Meadow Mouse, from the Viviparous Quadrupeds, can be used to tell some very important concepts about American identity, history, culture and value.

john-james-audubon-arvicola-xanthognathus-yellow-cheeked-meadow-mouse-natural-size

John Woodhouse Audubon (American, 1812-1862), printed by John T. Bowen (British, 1801-ca. 1856, active in Philadelphia, PA). “Yellow-Cheeked Meadow Mouse,” Plate 115 from “The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America,” 1847. Hand-colored lithograph, OSU Museum of Art purchase, 10-0001.

John James Audubon was not originally from America, but his story does demonstrate some common values of American people. As demonstrated in many of the paintings we have seen, immigrants and their descendants colonized the land to make a place for themselves, a home (for example, Fanny Palmer’s Across the Continent). In America, a foundational value is that you can create a life for yourself—all you have to do is work hard. This isn’t the case for everyone in reality, but for Audubon it was. He was born in Haiti, the son of a French sailor who left him to be raised by his stepmother.  He later came to America to avoid being sent to the French army. Once in America, he tried his hand at many things and failed, going bankrupt at one point and being thrown in jail, afterwards having to leave his town. He left his family to try and make a living doing work on the river, collecting and drawing many species of birds. Those drawings became The Birds of America, with which he finally hit his big break. It became extremely popular in London, where he had found someone to print it. He returned to his family, with whom he later moved to New York. Audubon worked diligently and was eventually rewarded; this is the idea behind America for many immigrants. They can come to America and make a better life for their families.

Birds of America was so popular that Audubon succeeded it with his second book, which addressed mammals in America. Audubon was not able to complete the Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America due to illness, but his son continued in his footsteps and finished the large book, which included 150 species. John Woodhouse Audubon was actually the one who completed this illustration of the Yellow-Cheeked Meadow Mouse. Despite this slight change in authorship, the book was still widely popular. Becoming educated in fields like science and art was increasing in popularity during these times. The American Association of Medicine was founded during this time, and the first natural history museum was created only a few years earlier. In Charles Willson Peale’s painting, The Artist in His Museum, he shows the first natural history museum in America with many diverse specimens to see. Audubon’s books were almost like portable versions of a natural history museum for those who could not go to one.

museum_peale.artist.lg

Charles Willson Peale, “The Artist in His Museum,” 1822. Oil on canvas, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.

People were beginning to find value in knowledge and scientific exploration of the land they have claimed. However, they were not the only people who were interested in the unknowns of America. Audubon’s books were first printed and became widely popular in London. Now this may have been due to more availability of printmaking in London, but also may have been partially because of the curiosity of British people about America. Prints and books made learning about these organisms and the land much easier. Not only do the books show the different animals that you could actually encounter in America, but you can also see different kinds of environments and landscapes that are possible in America through them.

At the same time, America was viewed as an untamable wilderness by many, especially those who did not live here. Audubon’s descriptions of wild animals only help to enhance this message to outsiders. Not only are the animals depicted in his books often not seen commonly in other areas of the world; but also the images do not show any sign of human interference. Europe was seen as full of people, whereas America was envisioned as almost lacking human inhabitants. During this time people tended to focus on the land and its wild natural beauty. Euro-American artists and poets like William Cullen Bryant admired these natural aspects of America, and completely ignored the existence of any other inhabitants (Native Americans) of this land. They often showed the land as ripe for the taking with no obstacles, enhancing the idea of Manifest Destiny. Audubon does the same thing. He may not be ignoring the inhabitants of the land for the same reasons, but nevertheless, there is no sign that there are any people in his scientific illustrations, other than the creatures he is illustrating. The habitats of the animals do not show any presence of people or manmade structures.  He is illustrating the wild and untamable creatures of America and strengthening the message that America is a vast wilderness. Though many saw the wilderness as a challenge to be conquered, Audubon was concerned about conservation, and did voice his concern about the elimination of bird habitats and the negative effects this had on the creatures.

Love and curiosity toward nature is how Audubon originally started illustrating the many species of birds in North America. He studied birds during his youth and would draw them as a hobby. When hard times befell him, he used this interest and skill to create his first book, Birds of America. When his book became extremely popular, it became clear who Audubon’s audience was. Like many during previous times, his audience was wealthy, educated individuals. Though prints made art more accessible to the general public, the text included in Audubon’s books was not designed for leisure reading for the less educated. These illustrations were made to be commissioned for educational purposes. This fact explains many aspects of Audubon’s paintings.

Audubon made his scientific illustrations very thorough, including many concepts that were important to an animal and its survival. The amount of detail he put in his paintings was not simply to show his skill, but to realistically depict these creatures. The goal of scientific illustrations is to allow for education on a creature without actually needing the creature to be present. This was the goal of Audubon’s illustrations; the audience should feel as if they are actually watching the creature in its original habitat. Many of the illustrations he completed were done in a way to be the actual scale of the creature. The habitats that he placed these creatures in were also supposed to be educational. The background illustrated with the animal was not simply artistically appealing, but was made to be an accurate depiction of the habitat in which the animals lived. Many of the creatures can even be seen with specific types of food that they would consume. All of these aspects are included in the pictures because they were important parts of the organism’s lifestyle. These illustrations were not only made to be appealing to the eyes, but were made to tell a story of an organism and the environment in which it survives.

Audubon did not have the privileged life of some; he worked and failed before finally accomplishing something that was capable of stabilizing his life in America. However, he was still able to make his life into something great through his eventual successes. He demonstrates the values of dedication and strength held by many early Americans—the idea that hard work will lead to success in the future. Though this was not often the case, it was still a common dream held by the people.  At the same time, his art work, and that of his son following in his footsteps, demonstrates the untamable nature of America that has so many, including foreigners, entranced. The Yellow-Cheeked Meadow Mouse shows only the wild, natural side of America and the creatures that one might encounter. Many people during this time were interested in enjoying the world around them and learning about it and Audubon helped make that possible.

 

Works Cited

Chowder, Ken. “Drawn from Nature.” PBS, 25 July 2007.

John James Audubon.” Audubon. National Audubon Society, 14 Sept. 2015.

 

Student writing is edited for length and clarity, but the content is not changed.

 

 

Posted in permanent collection, student research, student writing | Leave a comment